Between the 1920’s and the 1930’s, some young caribbean people born in the French West Indies met in Paris. They also met there some writers from the Harlem Rebirth, thanks to Paulette and Jane Nardal. Though they were also writers themselves, they owned at this time a tea house. This tea house was the place where the Negritude has been created. With the help of the haitian doctor Leo Sajou, the two sisters started to publish a literary revue called La revue du Monde Noir. This is the reason of the fast spreading of the Negritude.
Meanwhile, in the spanish colonies in the Caribbean Islands, a similar movement was created and also with the help of the Harlem Rebirth protagonists. This movement was called the Negrismo.
The founders of the Negritude are known as the three fathers. They were Aimé Césaire, Léopold Sédar Senghor, and Leon-Gontran Damas. Though they were born in different caribbean islands, they met in Paris in 1931.
The Negritude word was used for the first time in 1935 by the famous caribbean artist Aimé Césaire, in the third issue of L’Etudiant Noir, a magazine founded by the three fathers, but also with Gilbert Gratiant, Leonard Sainville and Paulette Nardal. The Negritude movement was symbolized by the opposition to the caribbean colonialism, by blaming the Europe, and by rejecting the occidental ideology. Of course, they considered that being black was a pride. Also, Aimé Césaire was the first man ever to use the word nigger in a good way.
But they never asked for the independance of their islands. Aimé Césaire was even elected as the mayor of the Martinique’s capital, Fort-de-France, and also as a french parliament representant.
Senghor, an african poet & an active member of the Negritude, was elected as the Senegal president. He used a lot this movement to valorize the african people. That’s how this movement founded by caribbean people was spreaded in the whole world.